Before the birth of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), there was a dark time in this world. Oligarchs ruled over the world without law and order. Law and rules were based over king’s interests rather than absolute laws. Slavery was promoted in every part of the world. Monarchy was the trend everywhere and bloodshed of common people was common due to a power play. Sacred text was changed or amended over wishes and will of powerful people (Kings).
There were two superpowers at that time in 500 A.D. Roman Empire and the Persian Empire. People of Arab were worshiping idols and powerful tribes were ruling the economy.
Roman Empire (Byzantine)
From 500 A.D Roman Empire and Persian empire were busy fighting each other. At the end of the war Rome agreed to pay tribute to the Persians in 30,000 pieces of gold annually.
In 532 A.D a popular uprising took place in Constantinople against Justinian. Constantinople was nearly destroyed by fire. The insurrection was quelled with great cruelty by Belisarius. Thirty thousand people were slain and there was a chain of battles in Byzantine empire with the Persian empire.
Thousands of people were brutally slain and millions were disabled because of different wars in that time. Sex slavery was fashioned for kings and war Slaves were used for amusement death shows. Christians killed each other for throne and power. Also, they attacked other states to conquer it for assets and land. Religious fights between churches lead to deaths of many people. King’s order was the religion for people and sacred text was only for king’s family.
Blinding was popular, as was cutting off noses and tongues. In later years, castration became the most common practice. It was also practiced in people due to poverty. The other reason was, byzantine parents were to castrate their sons in the hope that these boys would grow up to secure lucrative positions at court. Oligarchs ruled over the state.
The Zoroastrianism (religion) ruled over Iran. It had fragmented into regional variations which also saw the rise of local cult-deities. Sassanid religious policies contributed to the flourishing of numerous religious reform movements, most importantly the Mani and Mazdak religions. Judaism and Christianity was also a part of Persian empire
The Parthians and the Sasanians would also extensively interact with the Romans culturally. The Roman–Persian wars and the Byzantine–Sasanian wars shaped the landscape of Western Asia, Europe, the Caucasus, North Africa, and the Mediterranean Basin for centuries. For a period of over 400 years, the Sasanians and the neighboring Byzantines were recognized as the two leading powers in the world.
Persians were better in technology and different inventions at that time. Persians fought with byzantine empire and slayed thousands of people. Persian kings also promoted slavery in kingdom and also they slaved their own children. Monarchy was supported by kings and people were in worst conditions. There was no law and rules for a wealthy person and poverty was main cause of crime. Persian were attacks over different state for looting them. They also spread king’s religion through war.
Before Prophets’s Birth, the state of Arab was ruled by Christianity, Jewish, Zoroastrianism and Paganism. Arabic language was so rich, thats why people of Arab were in supremacy comparative to other nations. They called others nations dumb. There were many tribes in Arab, most of tribes relevant to judaism, Christianity and pagans. List of tribes
The Heart of Arab “Mecca” which was occupied by pagans and they were doing idol worshiping/ polytheism, which is prohibited in Abrahamic religion specially in islam. In the holy Kaaba, pagans settled different idols which were renowned in Arab (al-Lāt and al-‘Uzzá, Manāt, Habal). There were approximately 360 idols which were placed there before islam. People also worshiped celestial bodies as deities (Sun, Moon, Mercury, Jupiter etc)
Rabi’ah bin harisa was the first person who bought idols in Mecca from Syria. He was a custodian of Kaaba.
The culture of Arabs before islam was very brutal. Maybe the culture of Arab was mingled with other religions/cultures thats why the fight between tribes took centuries and bloodshed was never stopped. Mostly, Arabs were businessmen and also promoted slavery officially. Blinding was popular, as was cutting off noses and tongues. In later years, castration became the most common practices in life and wars. Religious and Racial Discrimination helped them in most of the problems.